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Learning from Around the World

No country is perfect. Yet, there is something to learn from all corners of the globe. Sharing knowledge and experience is key to better policymaking, and Inequality Solutions highlights inequality-reducing policies from a diverse range of countries, spanning all five continents and all income levels. 

The website features a range of policies, from major transformative programs and frameworks to specific approaches and stepping stones towards reducing inequality and exclusion. The goal is to provide a diverse selection of policies that are applicable to a range of political and economic contexts.

How are the Policies Selected?

We use two key criteria when selecting policies:

  1. Is the policy aimed to reduce inequality and/or exclusion?
  2. Is or was the policy successful?

First, the Inequality Solutions website seeks to broaden the understanding of inequality beyond economic inequalities to include political inequities, inclusion, and various social dynamics such as race, gender, LGBTQI+, geography, caste, etc.

Second, the policy’s success is critical. The portal provides solutions, and evidence of success may come in various forms—from a policy’s longevity and public support to shifting societal norms. The Pathfinders research team acknowledges for many contexts, there is limited data and evaluative sources. However, transparency is encouraged where extensive evaluative sources or specific information are not available. The goal is to avoid including policies in this resource with little impact or that have unintended negative consequences. 

A table of the various dimensions of success considered in the portal is provided below.

Dimensions of Success


Effectiveness Does the policy achieve its intended (pre-defined) goals?
Impact – Policy work has a positive net impact on society.
– Policy has a measurable impact on reducing inequality and/or exclusion.
Accuracy – Are there any negative unintended consequences that resulted from the policy? [i.e., is the policy fair and equitably distributed across different groups in society?]
– Are there any regressive impacts and potential negative re-distributional effects of the policy?
Programmatic Success – Does the design of smart policies address a clear problem?
– Policy being passed/implemented may sometimes constitute a success in itself.
Process Management Success – The policy process is considered sufficiently inclusive, participatory and transparent.
– Stakeholders view the policy process and distribution as sufficiently fair.
– Nothing about the policy program is perceived as illegal or corrupt, etc.
Political Legitimacy – The policy has sufficient political support from the general public.
– The manner in which the policy was achieved by securing broad buy-in [through participatory processes] various stakeholders, such as the government in power, opposition, and civil society organizations.
Stakeholder Success – Support for the objectives and work of the policy from the individuals and groups who are implementing the policy.
– Support and satisfaction from those impacted/or targeted by the policy.
– Sufficient financial support provided by relevant entities.
– Support for the policy from the general public / constituents.
– Policy works towards building trust in and support for the institution’s initiatives.
Longevity and/or Sustainability – The extent to which the policy has become embedded into long-term regional/national policymaking.
– Has the policy survived a change of government or push-back from opposition?
– Does the policy have the potential to sustain over the long term?
– Does the policy catalyze new ideas, activities, and opportunities?
Efficiency – Is/was the policy implemented in a resource and cost-effective manner?

As there are thousands of policies worth including, and new policies created and implemented all the time, we will continue to update and expand the Inequality Solutions portal in the coming months and years.

Peer Review Process

The peer review process for policies includes a review by three to four colleagues who are part of the Grand Challenge on Inequality & Exclusion team on the Pathfinders along with external consultants and advisors. Each policy goes through a qualitative review, political and technical review, and final internal approval. 

What Information is Included

The main purpose of the curated inequality policies is to provide policymakers and researchers with concise and essential information about each policy, including its purpose, scope, implementation details, cost and financing, outcomes, and assessment. Although the summaries are not comprehensive, they aim to clearly convey how the policy works to reduce inequality and/or exclusion. 

Readers can refer to the references for a more comprehensive list of sources.